Global Vision Biotechnologies are dedicated to marijuana research and development. Our goal is to define the future of the medicinal marijuana industry by rigorous scientific research and development programs which help assess the safety and efficiency of marijuana and marijuana compounds for treating medical conditions.

We are strongly committed to our research programs which leads to an improved quality of life for patients in a time frame that matters. We partner with doctors, physicians, hospitals, clinics and universities to advance the clinical applications of medicinal marijuana. We conduct both clinical and pre-clinical research and development of medicinal marijuana to provide evidence one way or the other to answer the question, “Can Medicinal Marijuana cure hard to treat illnesses that is bothering the world today?”

We have developed a close working relationship with many state and federal agencies worldwide to help gain regulatory approvals and have assisted panels of nationally-recognized experts to assist with the rigorous processing of applications. Furthermore, we have funded carefully designed studies that have now been published in several scientific journals, and by doing so making significant contributions to the available literature on marijuana and cannabinoids. These results have helped bring together accomplished international experts on marijuana and cannabinoids and expand upon the possible uses of marijuana as a therapeutic agent to a number of chronic conditions.

The challenges that we encounter through our clinical trials and research programs are numerous, but despite them we remain committed to the improvement and advancement of medicinal marijuana’s clinical development. Much of our research team's efforts are focused on not only developing and studying marijuana's potential medicinal benefits, but also its potential risks.

We strive to give patients’ relief from their conditions and illnesses and give them control over their lives when they need it. Our research is focused on developing marijuana in to medicine that will treat a plethora of conditions. Through exhaustive development and clinical testing of marijuana and cannabinoid their medicinal qualities are now proven treatments for pain relief, control of nausea and vomiting, as well as appetite stimulation, to name a few. This proven testing has now further emphasized the need to develop safer and more effective methods of accurately administering these drugs to patients.

Global Vision Biotechnologies conducts high quality scientific studies intended to ascertain the general medical safety and efficacy of marijuana products and examine alternative forms of medical marijuana treatments and administration. Because of this, we are now considered as a reliable resource to assist with health policy planning by virtue of our close collaboration with global marijuana producers and product developers. We value integrity and honesty, and our decisions are informed by research.

Clinical Research Focus

Medicinal marijuana research and development is where our main focus lies and is one of the most ground-breaking technologies of benefit to the medical industry today. After years of research and development only now has medicinal marijuana been welcomed with open arms by all branches of the medical profession.

Traditionally, marijuana was only considered as a recreational drug, however with the help of clinical research facilities such as ours, the world has been introduced to alternative ways in treating specific, and more importantly, hard to cure conditions that have been a challenge to the medical world for many centuries.

Our company is considered as an integral part to this global ground-breaking movement where marijuana can be considered as a strong alternative to the toxic treatments that are more readily available to patients today. We are not only here to further develop marijuana-based products, but to also introduce and educate the general medical audience to the realities and possibilities that medicinal marijuana can now offer humanity for the purpose of treating chronic Illnesses.

Our focus is on giving doctors and patients the one thing they want the most; treatment for their medical conditions and lives through the use of clinically proven medicines.

CBD and THC

For many years now, marijuana has been shown to positively treat an ever-growing number of medical conditions. For centuries, different forms of the plant have been used to treat many different conditions and symptoms. Marijuana has been used to relieve a myriad of symptoms and conditions including pain and anxiety, reduce inflammation, encourage sleep, and prevent seizures. Marijuana is one of the oldest and most versatile medicines in the world.

We are here to provide you with information on medicinal marijuana in a very straightforward and simple to understand way. Whether you are just beginning to explore the medicinal powers of marijuana, or have been self-medicating for years, clinical research now shows that marijuana is effective in providing benefits for people suffering from an increasing number of conditions and symptoms.

Current knowledge about marijuana's effects derives from three main sources: personal and historical accounts of its use, clinical studies, and scientific research of marijuana’s constituent compounds. Different compounds in marijuana have different actions in the human body.

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, (THC), the plant’s naturally found compound causes the ‘high’ reported by marijuana users. Cannabidiol, (CBD), has very little or no noticeable psychoactive effect on users and is the plant’s naturally found compound primary used in medicinal marijuana.

The Cannabinoid Profile

What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, (CBD), is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid found in marijuana plants and is credited for several pharmacological properties. It is also known to have beneficial effects against inflammation, pain, neurological conditions, cancer, and other ailments.

CBDs are now clinically proven to provide such medical efficacy to humans because they mimic our own naturally produced endocannabinoids, and bind to the same receptors, located throughout the brain and body. The human endocannabinoid system is responsible for regulating many different body systems, including pain, memory, mood and appetite. The unique ability of Cannabidiol to be able to communicate with the human body in the same manner that it communicates with itself makes it an ideal medicine for humans.

Translating into medicinally valuable relief, Cannabidiol have been successfully used in the treatment of conditions such as cancer, seizures, and Parkinson’s disease and symptoms such as inflammation, pain and assisting sufferers of Hepatis C and HIV to manage their conditions far better than ever before. Cannabidiol’ ability to act on the body’s cannabinoid receptors help promote the body’s healthy regulation of the central nervous, immune, and endocannabinoid systems.

CBD research chemical compound

Patients are increasingly now relying solely on CBD, instead of conventional medical care, as treatment for numerous physical illnesses and conditions. This is why our company is continually researching and developing products and medicines that are clinically proven for human consumption. Our research goal is to ultimately create a brand that produces medicinal marijuana products that will heighten the effectiveness in curing conditions that have been proven to be difficult to cure by conventional medicine alone.

In 2018, cannabidiol was FDA-approved for the treatment of two forms of treatment-resistant epilepsy: Dravet syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in children with refractory epilepsy. The recommended daily dose is 10 mg per kg body weight per day in epileptic children 2–5 years old. Research on other uses for cannabidiol includes several neurological disorders, but the findings have not been confirmed to establish such uses in clinical practice.

Pharmacodynamics

Cannabidiol has low affinity for the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors, although it can act as an antagonist of CB1/CB2 agonists despite this low affinity. Cannabidiol may be an antagonist of GPR55, a G protein-coupled receptor and putative cannabinoid receptor that is expressed in the caudate nucleus and putamen in the brain. It also may act as an inverse agonist of GPR3, GPR6, and GPR12. CBD has been shown to act as a serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist. It is an allosteric modulator of the μ- and δ-opioid receptors as well. The pharmacological effects of CBD may involve PPARγ agonism and intracellular calcium release.

Pharmacokinetics

The oral bioavailability of cannabidiol is approximately 6% in humans, while its bioavailability via inhalation is 11 to 45% (mean 31%). The elimination half-life of CBD is 18–32 hours. Cannabidiol is metabolized in the liver as well as in the intestines by the cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2J2, and CYP3A4, and by the isoenzymes UGT1A7, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7. CBD may have a wide margin in dosing.

What is CBDA?

Cannabidiol acid (CBDa) is a raw chemical compound found in the resinous glands (trichomes) of hemp plants. “Raw” in this case means “not heated and not cooked”.

Previous studies have shown that compounds in raw hemp are right for your health. Cannabidiol acid (CBDa) is one of them. Like a cup of peppermint tea, hemp has the potential to alleviate nausea according to different lab tests.

CBDa does not interact with the endocannabinoid system.

If you are familiar with cannabinoids, compounds found in cannabis, such as THC and CBD, you’ve probably also heard about the endocannabinoid system, a complex network of receptors in the body, and chemical compounds similar to cannabis called endocannabinoids. It acts as a type of attenuator that ensures that there is homeostasis or balance in the body. Although it is believed that CBD indirectly stimulates the endocannabinoid system by increasing the level of cannabinoids, studies show that CBDa does not interact with the endocannabinoid system. In contrast, CBDa affects other receptors and non-endocannabinoid enzymes.

What is CBC?

Cannabichromene (CBC) is one of the lesser-known cannabinoids. Cannabichromene, or CBC, is a phytocannabinoid of cannabis. Compared to other cannabinoids such as THC, CBD or CBG, this is one of the least known compounds of the marijuana plant. It is believed that it is not psychoactive.

Cannabichromene was first identified in 1966. Its structure is very similar to that of other cannabinoids, such as THC, CBD and cannabinol. It is believed to play a crucial role in giving cannabis its anti-inflammatory, antiviral and analgesic properties.

Like other cannabinoids, CBC interacts with the CB1 and CB2 receptors of our endocannabinoid system; but it is also known to react with other receptors such as TRPV1 and TRPA1. It is believed that the reasons for its medicinal properties is due to the fact that it interacts with these receptors..

CBC is synthesised from CBGA, the first cannabinoid produced at the factory. CBGA is synthesized in a variety of cannabinoid acids due to enzymatic activity, and one of them (CBCA) is converted to CBC.

Interesting facts about CBC:

  • CBC and neurogenesis. A mice study, published in 2013, suggests that CBC can positively stimulate new cell growth.
  • CBC may help reduce chronic stress and depression. A study at the University of Mississippi showed that rats treated with CBC had better stress test results.
  • CBC is anti-inflammatory. A study conducted in 2010 showed that CBC itself begins to have anti-inflammatory effects.
  • This little cannabinoid can have a significant effect on pain. A 2011 study found that CBC stimulates analgesia networks in animal models.
  • CBC has precise antibacterial properties that were first identified thirty years ago. Studies in the 1980s even indicate that CBC can have a direct effect on deadly bacterial killers.

What is CBCA?

Cannabichromene acid (CBCA) is a precursor to the biosynthesis of CBC, non-psychoactive cannabis, which has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic effects.

What is CBG?

Scientists first discovered cannabigerol or CBG in 1964 as a component of hashish. In 1975, researchers found that CBGA (the acidic form of CBG) is the first cannabinoid formed in a plant. From there, CBGA is converted to THCA, CBDA or CBCA by enzymes. CBGA is the primary precursor to all cannabinoids that we know.

In January 2015, researchers found that CBG had a neuroprotective effect in mice with Huntington's disease, a disease characterised by degeneration of nerve cells in the brain. CBG slowed the progression of colon cancer in mice, a promising result that could soon lead to a new treatment. The data suggest that CBS is an alpha-2-adrenergic receptor potent and moderately strong 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, which provides a wide range of therapeutic potential as an antidepressant for the treatment of psoriasis, as well as an analgesic.

Despite all the research, one of the studies revealed that CBG modifies the antiemetic properties of CBD by interacting with it, and not with the 5-HT1A receptor.

What is CBGA?

Performing a protective function of cannabis, CBGA is produced in plant trichomes and triggers necrosis of specific plant cells for naturally pruning leaves and allows the plant to maximise energy directed to the flower.

CBGA is the main compound of hemp flower. You can think of CBGA as the "grandfather" of cannabinoids because CBGA is at the top of the cascade reaction that produces three main lines of cannabinoids:

  • THCA (tetrahydrocannabinol acid)
  • CBDA (cannabidiol acid)
  • CBCA (Cannabichromenic Acid)

They end up becoming THC, CBD or CBC, respectively. CBGA can also become CBG, but in most strains, CBGA eventually converts to THC or CBD.

What is CBN?

Many people believe that CBN is a minor cannabinoid that comes from THC. CBN is usually found more in old marijuana than in fresh marijuana. However, the pharmaceutical industry is superior to CBN because of its (presumably) medicinal properties, as it is an acceptable product for those who cannot take THC.

CBN can be found in topical creams, capsules, or foods. According to some pharmacists, CBN is the most potent cannabinoid sedative: 5 mg of CBN equals 10 mg of diazepam.

In a different order, CBN is tested in cancer treatment. In some cases it showed promising results, although, these are preliminary conclusions. It is also useful against seizures, as is often the case with many other cannabinoids.

It does not have psychoactive effects, but it mixes relatively poorly with THC, because, in some cases, it was shown that the subjects felt dizzy or "as if they were drunk."

It is a cannabinoid typical of the cannabis plant, meaning it cannot be found in any other plant species. Its psychoactivity is low, which for many drug users is a great advantage, and is considered to be the cause of the sedative and narcotic effects of certain cannabis varieties. Refers to the second (inhibits adenylate cyclase). This is a molecule that can easily dissolve in fats or various solvents used to extract cannabis resin, being hydrophobic (water-repellent) and lipophilic (has an affinity for lipids).

Although the main characteristic of CBN is its sedative effect, which is ideal for combating apnea, insomnia, or other sleep disorders, this cannabinoid also has other therapeutic properties that can be used to treat a large number of diseases and conditions. According to various studies, it has been shown to have:

  • Sedative effect (promotes sleep and increases the duration of sleep)
  • Antiemetic effect (nausea and vomiting)
  • Pain reduction (chronic pain, fibromyalgia, etc.)
  • Antibacterial effect
  • Promotes bone cell growth (fracture treatment option)
  • Anticonvulsant effect (Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, etc.)
  • Stimulates appetite (chemotherapy, AIDS, appetite disorders)
  • Anti-inflammatory effect (ulcerative colitis)
  • Decreased intraocular pressure (glaucoma)
  • Control of skin cell growth (treatment of burns, psoriasis, etc.)

What is THC?

THC is an acronym for tetrahydrocannabinol, although its scientific name is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. THC is one of the essential cannabinoids in marijuana; it is one of the most common in plants and is responsible for psychoactive effects, but it also has medicinal benefits.

Although cannabis is a plant known for centuries, tetrahydrocannabinol was not isolated until 1964 when Dr Rafael Meshulam and his team managed to conduct this experiment. THC, scientifically known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or Δ9-THC, is a cannabinoid that produces a resinous marijuana plant that contains a high level of protection against direct exposure to the sun, especially against ultraviolet radiation. It is also assumed that this is a mechanism of self-defence against herbivores. THC is a compound which strongly depends on temperature. It can reach a smooth consistency at low temperatures, while in a warm environment, it becomes viscous, sticky and oily. In this state, it is highly resistant to dissolution in water, but not in lipids or alcohol. Its entry into the body causes psychoactive effects, acting on the brain receptors CB1 and CB2, while they are a variable delta-nine or delta-eight. However, the latter mainly leads to a loss of human appetite and psychoactive effects less than its comparison. Therefore its consumption is less attractive.

Here is a list of beneficial features of THC:

  • Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) interacts with the body by binding to the receptors of the endocannabinoid system, known as CB1 and CB2.
  • THC, according to various studies, has analgesic, antiepileptic, anti-inflammatory and antiemetic properties, and its antitumor effects are also being studied. Besides, it is used to whet appetite and manage insomnia.
  • Thanks to the benefits of THC, cancer or HIV patients have a better quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry has created various drugs consisting of cannabinoids, so their therapeutic qualities are undeniable.
  • Of course, before taking THC to alleviate any symptoms, we should consult with a medical marijuana specialist who can advise us on the appropriate dose for our body and the signs that we want to alleviate.

What is THCa?

In their original form, hemp flowers contain minimal THC. However, they provide a large amount of the chemical compound tetrahydrocannabinol acid (THCA), which does not have any psychoactive effect because it does not contain active THC.

THCA is converted to THC during decarboxylation. This occurs naturally over time under the influence of heat and ambient light, but most of the THCA is turned when hemp heats up during consumption.

THCA will be the forerunner of THC. Decarboxylation is a technical term for what happens when hemp is heated. When marijuanna is lit, cannabis is decarboxylated. When smoking marijuana, you are taking A from THCA.

You may be well-acquainted with the notion of psychoactive effects of cannabis. THC is what produces this effect and makes the plant so desirable to many people. THCA, on the other hand, is an acid, so it has an additional letter.

Cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the body and are part of the endocannabinoid system. Each of them causes various emotional or physical reactions and, at the same time, produces sensations that we feel. These feelings vary from being at peace to feeling pain. THC binds to these receptors and elicits the above responses.

THCA has an additional linked carboxyl group, which defines it as an acid that has a low affinity and cannot bind to the same cannabinoid receptors as THC.

If we analyse the conversion of THCA to THC, it will look like this:

  • Cannabis contains THCA, the concentration of which increases with the development of the plant following the growing conditions and its genetics.
  • When hemp is ready for harvest, it is cut and dried. This process turns part of THCA into THC as a result of the temperatures to which it is exposed.
  • THCA studs are exposed to temperatures above 105 ° C / 221 ° F, which eliminates the other carboxylic acid group A.
  • Our bodies absorb recently converted THC, which is then transported through the bloodstream and interacts with receptors, which causes various physical and emotional reactions.